By by Shaikul-Islam Ibn Taimiyah ; abridged by Ash-Shahhat Ahmad At-Tahhan ; rendered into English by Bayan Translation Services.
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Extra resources for Answering those who altered the religion of Jesus Christ
Muftis were not appointed by the state, their authority was based on their reputation as learned and pious men, their opinion had no official sanction, and a layman might resort to any scholar he knew and in whom he had confidence. 16 Doubts about whether to associate with the government at all, which had characterized their predecessors under the `Abbasids, continued to disturb many `ulama' during the Seljuk period and probably increased as a result of the nature of the ruling elite and the growing ties of patronage between the political rulers and the `ulama'.
For a short remark on the tensions between the mutakallimun and muhaddithun see Pines 1996, 74. On this subject see also below. 6. Crone and Hinds 1980, 93, observe that there were no confrontations between the caliphs and the `ulama' in the early `Abbasid period, although they believe a confrontation was in the cards during that period. Zaman 1997, 102, 105, points out that up to al-Ma'mun, `Abbasid caliphs did not challenge the authority of the `ulama'. 7. The caliphs’ change in attitude toward the mihna is noted in Zaman 1997, 112.
Either he or his political representative in Baghdad, the governor Ishaq b. Ibrahim, questioned the `ulama' personally. After four months al-Ma'mun died. His four-months-old religious policy cannot be ascribed to his successors during the next fourteen years of the mihna. 8 He and a handful of pro-kalam (theology) qadis interrogated and tortured the mihna’s victims, while the caliph neither put an end to the policy nor participated actively in it. As a result, shortly after the mihna was instigated by alMa'mun, the caliphs receded to the background and it took on the features of a struggle of the muhaddithun against the mutakallimun.
Answering those who altered the religion of Jesus Christ by by Shaikul-Islam Ibn Taimiyah ; abridged by Ash-Shahhat Ahmad At-Tahhan ; rendered into English by Bayan Translation Services.