By Moojan Momen
“Momen’s e-book fills a huge hole within the common literature in English on Twelver Shi’ism, and may be conscientiously studied by means of somebody who desires to be aware of extra approximately what's occurring within the heart East today….This is a great paintings which merits the widest attainable readership.”—Malise Ruthven, The center East
“An super precious reference resource at the institution and evolution of the Shi’ite department of the Islamic religion.”—Cecil V. Crabb, Jr., Perspective
“An unpretentious sort, interpretive readability and . . . sound judgment symbolize Momen’s writings. a few of the points of Twelver Shi’ism are rigorously unusual to meet either the overall reader and the aspiring student.”—Norman Calder, Times Literary Supplement
“Specialist and nonspecialist alike will reap the benefits of its lucid exposition of either elite and renowned Shi’ism. in particular priceless is the way in which the paintings provides sleek serious scholarship on Shi’i historical past along the orthodox background, which nonetheless has nice effect at the religion’s self-understanding.”—Mel Piehl, Library Journal
Moojan Momen has written widely on Iran and heart East religion.
Read Online or Download An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: The History & Doctrines of Twelver Shi'ism PDF
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Extra info for An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: The History & Doctrines of Twelver Shi'ism
Some scholars maintain they are siblings and identify them with the Assyrian deities Shulman and Shulmanitu. Shlmn, called ‘good and bountiful’ like Maan, is invoked along with Abgal on an altar at Ras esh-Shaar. The jinn god Shai' al-Qaum is a protector of caravans. His Arabic name means ‘protector of the people’, or ‘the one who accompanies the people’, suggesting that his cult was particularly favoured by nomadic tribes. indd 15 3/17/2010 10:30:01 AM 16 Legends of the Fire Spirits Roman conquest in 70 AD – were for long familiar with jinn and the lore associated with them.
The tree had been cultivated by the mothergoddess Inanna (or Ishtar), who wanted to make herself a throne and a bed from its wood. However, to her dismay, a dragon had nested at the base of the tree, and a Zu-bird (another Sumerian storm demon) had placed its young in the highest branches. Lilith had made her home in between the other two creatures. The hero Gilgamesh, seeking to rescue the tree for the goddess, slew the dragon with a bronze axe, whereupon the Zu-bird fled with its young into the mountains, and a terrified Lilith tore down her house and escaped into the desert.
The other stream was channelled by Greek and Roman philosophers and proto-scientists, and focused on the role of ‘demons’ (in Greek, daimones) as intermediaries between men and gods. Belief in demons was widespread in the Graeco-Roman world; it may have originated in Mesopotamia as well but underwent considerable evolution and refi nement at the hands of such thinkers as Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Plutarch, Porphyry and Augustine. The demons of the pre-Christian era were natural spirits, inhabiting high places and the upper air, neither good nor evil in their essence, but often protective and inspirational, and conveyors of knowledge and talent.
An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: The History & Doctrines of Twelver Shi'ism by Moojan Momen