Get AIDS and Tuberculosis: A Deadly Liaison (Infection Biology PDF

By Stefan H. E. Kaufmann, Bruce D. Walker

ISBN-10: 3527322701

ISBN-13: 9783527322701

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Additional info for AIDS and Tuberculosis: A Deadly Liaison (Infection Biology Handbook Series)

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1997) Late escape from an immunodominant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response associated with progression to AIDS. Nat. , 3, 212–217. , Rowland-Jones, S. E. (2001) Clustered mutations in HIV-1 gag are consistently required for escape from HLA-B27-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. J. Infect. , 193, 375–386. J. and Walker, B. D. (2006) PD-1 expression on HIV-specific T cells is associated with T-cell exhaustion and disease progression. Nature, 443, 350–354. S. D. (2007) Upregulation of CTLA-4 by HIV-specific CD4 þ T cells correlates with disease progression and defines a reversible immune dysfunction.

In addition, functional impairment or exhaustion of these responses over time in the setting of chronic viral stimulation may play a role. The inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1; also known as PDCD1), a negative regulator of activated T cells, is markedly upregulated on the surface of HIV-specific CD8 þ T-cells, the expression correlating with impaired HIV-specific CD8 þ T-cell function as well as with predictors of disease progression – positively with plasma viral load, and inversely with the CD4 þ T-cell count [35].

78, 630–641. , Altfeld, M. D. (2003) Comprehensive epitope analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific T-cell responses directed against the entire expressed HIV-1 genome demonstrate broadly directed responses, but no correlation to viral load. J. , 77, 2081–2092. , Goulder, P. and Walker, B. (2005) Differential immunogenicity of HIV-1 clade C proteins in eliciting CD8 þ and CD4 þ cell responses. J. Infect. , 192, 1588–1596. D. and Goulder, P. (2007) CD8 þ T-cell responses to different HIV proteins have discordant associations with viral load.

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AIDS and Tuberculosis: A Deadly Liaison (Infection Biology Handbook Series) by Stefan H. E. Kaufmann, Bruce D. Walker

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