By Stefan H. E. Kaufmann, Bruce D. Walker
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The 1st quantity makes use of case experiences as exemplars to light up the old improvement of the style, whereas the second one quantity offers chapters on a thought of biography focussing on critical elements resembling the relationship among biography, archive and cultural reminiscence, biography and mediality (writing, movie, photography), biography and psychoanalysis, biography and gender, and on questions of intercultural verbal exchange via biographies.
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Additional info for AIDS and Tuberculosis: A Deadly Liaison (Infection Biology Handbook Series)
1997) Late escape from an immunodominant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response associated with progression to AIDS. Nat. , 3, 212–217. , Rowland-Jones, S. E. (2001) Clustered mutations in HIV-1 gag are consistently required for escape from HLA-B27-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. J. Infect. , 193, 375–386. J. and Walker, B. D. (2006) PD-1 expression on HIV-speciﬁc T cells is associated with T-cell exhaustion and disease progression. Nature, 443, 350–354. S. D. (2007) Upregulation of CTLA-4 by HIV-speciﬁc CD4 þ T cells correlates with disease progression and deﬁnes a reversible immune dysfunction.
In addition, functional impairment or exhaustion of these responses over time in the setting of chronic viral stimulation may play a role. The inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1; also known as PDCD1), a negative regulator of activated T cells, is markedly upregulated on the surface of HIV-speciﬁc CD8 þ T-cells, the expression correlating with impaired HIV-speciﬁc CD8 þ T-cell function as well as with predictors of disease progression – positively with plasma viral load, and inversely with the CD4 þ T-cell count .
78, 630–641. , Altfeld, M. D. (2003) Comprehensive epitope analysis of human immunodeﬁciency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-speciﬁc T-cell responses directed against the entire expressed HIV-1 genome demonstrate broadly directed responses, but no correlation to viral load. J. , 77, 2081–2092. , Goulder, P. and Walker, B. (2005) Differential immunogenicity of HIV-1 clade C proteins in eliciting CD8 þ and CD4 þ cell responses. J. Infect. , 192, 1588–1596. D. and Goulder, P. (2007) CD8 þ T-cell responses to different HIV proteins have discordant associations with viral load.
AIDS and Tuberculosis: A Deadly Liaison (Infection Biology Handbook Series) by Stefan H. E. Kaufmann, Bruce D. Walker