By Hadley Wickham.
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Additional info for Advanced R
1 Atomic vectors There are four common types of atomic vectors that I’ll discuss in detail: logical, integer, double (often called numeric), and character. There are two rare types that I will not discuss further: complex and raw. 5) L suffix, you get an integer rather than a double c(1L, 6L, 10L) and FALSE (or T and F) to create logical vectors c(TRUE, FALSE, T, F) c("these are", "some strings") Atomic vectors are always ﬂat, even if you nest c()’s: c(1, c(2, c(3, 4))) #>  1 2 3 4 # the same as c(1, 2, 3, 4) #>  1 2 3 4 Missing values are speciﬁed with NA, which is a logical vector of length 1.
By modifying an existing vector in place: x <- 1:3; names(x) <- c("a", "b", "c"). • By creating a modiﬁed copy of a vector: x <- setNames(1:3, c("a", "b", "c")). Names don’t have to be unique. 1, is the most important reason to use names and it is most useful when the names are unique. Not all elements of a vector need to have a name. If some names are missing, names() will return an empty string for those elements. If all names are missing, names() will return NULL. Data structures 21 y <- c(a = 1, 2, 3) names(y) #>  "a" "" "" z <- c(1, 2, 3) names(z) #> NULL You can create a new vector without names using unname(x), or remove names in place with names(x) <- NULL.
A list will create one column for each element; it’s an error if they’re not all the same length. • A matrix will create a data frame with the same number of columns and rows. frame(x = 10, y = "z")) #> x y #> 1 1 a #> 2 2 b #> 3 3 c #> 4 10 z When combining column-wise, the number of rows must match, but row names are ignored. When combining row-wise, both the number Data structures 29 and names of columns must match. fill() to combine data frames that don’t have the same columns. It’s a common mistake to try and create a data frame by cbind()ing vectors together.
Advanced R by Hadley Wickham.