By Frances Gies, Joseph Gies
The Pastons relations of Norfolk, England, has lengthy been recognized to medieval students for its huge choice of own correspondence, which has survived 5 centuries. Revealing a wealth of data approximately manners, morals, way of life, and attitudes of the overdue heart a long time, the letters additionally inform the tale of 3 generations of the fifteenth-century Paston family members that treads like a ancient novel jam-packed with memorable characters: Margaret Paston, the indomitable spouse and mom who fought the family's battles; her husband, John Paston I, tricky, hardheaded, and three times restricted to Fleet legal yet by no means yielding to his enemies; daughter Margery, who scandalized friends and family by means of falling in love with the Paston bailiff, Richard Calle; lighthearted, chivalric Sir John; and joyful, brilliant John III, who opposed to all odds succeeded in marrying for love.
A Medieval Family lines the Pastons historical past from 1420, in the course of the stormy Wars of the Roses, to the early 1500s. The family's tale, extracted from their letters and papers and advised mostly of their personal phrases, indicates an aspect of background hardly ever printed: the lives and fortunes no longer of kings and queens yet of normal middle-class individuals with difficulties, tragedies, and moments of happiness.
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Extra resources for A Medieval Family: The Pastons of Fifteenth-Century England
G. 107). 90. Cod. 9 and 14. 91. Kaser, Römische Zivilprozessrecht, 563; Crook, Legal Advocacy, 45, 196; Visky, “Retribuzioni” 3–4; Wieacker, Allgemeine Zustände, 29–30; Kunkel, Römischen Juristen, 300–304. 28 * c h a p t e r o n e the ethics of advocates Work-related ethical rules form a key element of professionalism, and Roman authorities prescribed strict behavioral standards that lawyers were held to observe toward the courts, toward their clients, and in their private conduct outside of court.
98. 42–50. 99. Cod. 4; Cod. Theod. 3 (= Cod. 5); Cod. Theod. 2 (= Cod. 6); Cod. 20. The penalties could be severe; in one egregious case, two lawyers were executed for having drawn out a case for thirty years (Jones, Later Roman Empire 1:494, 2:1210 n. 55). 100. Quotation from Cod. Theod. 17); Cod. 3. Crook, Legal Advocacy, 141–42, cites a case from Roman Egypt involving mistakes by the advocate. 101 Conﬂict of interest between advocate and client, another perennial problem, also drew the ire of Roman authorities, who discouraged lawyers from accepting cases where such a situation might arise.
Then, in the mid-third century, according to the same account, Tiberius Coruncanius (d. 19 Although many details in the traditional account are dubious, and some may be downright fabrications, it does point up an important reality: early Roman law developed in three di∏erent branches. 20 They probably never had a total monopoly on knowledge of the customary practices that underlay much of archaic Roman private law, which dealt with transactions between private individuals and constituted a separate category from sacral law.
A Medieval Family: The Pastons of Fifteenth-Century England by Frances Gies, Joseph Gies