By Daniel C. Snell
A spouse to the traditional close to East deals scholars and basic readers a complete review of close to japanese civilization from the Bronze Age to the conquests of Alexander the good.
- Covers the civilizations of the Sumerians, Hittites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Israelites and Persians
- Places specific emphasis on social and cultural heritage
- Covers the legacy of the traditional close to East within the medieval and smooth worlds
- Provides an invaluable bibliographical consultant to this box of study
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Additional resources for A Companion to the Ancient Near East
Pottery and Structural Bias Production of pottery was closely coupled with sedentism and farming. Pottery was heavy, breakable, and difficult to transport and was almost exclusively found among sedentary peoples. The lulls in agricultural labor were easily filled by pottery production, and straw generated after harvest made ideal pottery temper. Economy and technology dovetailed perfectly. But what problem did the invention of pottery solve? Morphologically similar containers existed before pottery, in stone, lime-plaster, basketry, and wood.
The age was significant from a cultural point of view. It is the core of the socalled ‘‘Axial Age,’’ with the rise of the monotheistic religions of Judaism and Zoroastrianism, the activity of the major Israelite prophets in the Babylonian exile, and the blooming of the Greek ‘‘archaic’’ civilization with the Ionian philosophers, poets, and artists, and the formative period of democratic ideologies. It is significant that the major innovations took place not in the area of the traditional states of Babylonia and Egypt but rather in the new ethnic states and city-states, and that the most accelerated change took place in the century of disruption between the decline of the Assyrian empire starting about 630 and the consolidation of the Persian empire about 540.
A restricted-resource agriculture-based diet could mean nutritional deficiencies and dental problems (Smith, Bar-Yosef, and Sillen 1984). The tighter arrangement of sedentary villages and their piles of rubbish (and rats) meant higher rates of infectious disease, and closer contact between humans and animals might favor species-jumping diseases, as organisms associated with animals came into contact with new potential hosts. The repetitive manual labor involved in grain processing could cause skeletal stress (Molleson 2000).
A Companion to the Ancient Near East by Daniel C. Snell